Our Department has following laboratories for conducting experiments at UG/ PG / Ph-D and research levels:

Electron beam with thermal vapour deposition system


Electron beam deposition system is a form of physical vapour deposition system in which a target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum chamber with a thin layer of the anode material. EBPVD yields a high deposition rate from 1.0 to 100 μm/min at relatively low substrate temperature.
Due to the very high deposition rate, this process has potential industrial application for wear-resistant and thermal barrier coatings in aerospace industries, hard coatings for cutting and tool industries, and electronic and optical films for semiconductor industries and thin-film solar applications.

UV – Vis Spectrophotometer


Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared (NIR)) ranges. UV/Vis spectrophotometer is used in the quantitative determination of concentrations of the absorber in the solutions of transition metal ions and highly conjugated organic compounds.

Low Temperature Resistivity Measurement Setup


The potential probe is the most widely used method for resistivity measurements on the low resistive samples. Determination of the temperature dependent electrical resistance is a very important tool to explain the nature of ground state, phase diagrams, electrical, electronic and magnetic properties and instabilities observed of the studied materials for this kind of developments.
Two probes (ohmmeter or voltmeter – ammeter measurements) can be used for higher resistive samples and four probes methods (potential probe measurements) for the low resistive and single crystals. Whereas, Montgomery, van der Pauw and Smith techniques for the pellets and bulky samples.

Impedance analysis interface


LCR meters are measuring instruments that measure a physical property known as impedance. Impedance, which is expressed using the quantifier Z, indicates resistance to the flow of an AC current. It can be calculated from the current I flowing to the measurement target and the voltage V across the target’s terminals.
Since impedance is expressed as a vector on a complex plane, LCR meters measure not only the ratio of current and voltage RMS values, but also the phase difference between current and voltage waveforms. Temperature range for the LCR measurement is (50-600)˚C.

Lyopho Lizer


This instrument is used to remove the moisture from the sample or substances

Glove Box


This is use to create a N2 environment to avoid for contaminating of sample or substances .

Chemical Vapor Deposition Set-up


Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials. The process is often used to produced thin film like Graphene, MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, WSe2 on desired substrate. In CVD, the substrate is exposed to one or more  precursors , which react on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit.

Fume Hood


The Fume Hood is often the primary control device for protecting laboratory workers when working with flammable and toxic chemicals. It is a type of local ventilation device that is designed to limit exposure to hazardous or toxic fumes, vapors or dusts.

Centrifuge and Spin Coater


Centrifuge: Centrifuge is a machine with a rapidly rotating container that applies centrifugal force to its contents, typically to separate the denser material (e.g. graphite powder from water mixture) or liquids from solids.
Spin-coater: Spin coater is machine used for coating a material on a substrate by desired rotation speed. Rotation is continued while the fluid spins off the edges of the substrate, until the desired thickness of the film is achieved. The applied solvent is usually volatile, and simultaneously evaporates.

Fluorescence spectrophotometer


Fluorescence spectroscopy  is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyses fluorescence from a sample. It involves using a beam of xenon lamp, in wavelength range 200nm to 900nm, that excites the electrons in molecules of certain compounds and causes them to emit light. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a rapid, sensitive method for characterizing molecular environments and events.

Plasma Surface Technology


The basic device consists of standard wiring, electrical components, tubing. The height of the basic device may vary with several additional options. Plasma is evenly distributed inside a plasma chamber. Chamber volume varies from 0.1 to 12,600 litre. Oxidation-sensitive objects can be cleaned with plasma. (e.g. H2 as process gas).

Spin Coating Instrument


Spin Coating is a standard laboratory procedure which involves depositing thin films of materials, often polymers and inorganic materials through solution process uniformly on flat substrates.

Keysight B2912A (I-V Source unit)


The Keysight B2912A Precision Source / Measure Unit (SMU) is a 2-channel, compact and cost-effective bench-top SMU with the capability to source and measure both voltage and current. It is versatile to perform I/V (current vs. voltage) measurement easily with high accuracy. Integration of 4 quadrant source and measurement capabilities enables I/V measurement simply and easily without configuring multiple instruments.
The wide coverage of 210 V, 3 A DC/10.5 A pulse with a single instrument minimizes the investment. Minimum 10 fA/100 nV measurement resolution support accurate characterization of DUT. The superior 4.3’’ color display and various view modes improve productivity for test, debug and characterization with intuitive operation.

Thermal Evaporation Deposition System


Thermal evaporation is a common method of physical vapour deposition (PVD). It is one of the simplest forms of PVD and typically uses a resistive heat source to evaporate a solid material in a vacuum environment to form a thin film. The material is heated in a high vacuum chamber until vapor pressure is produced. The evaporated material, or vapor stream, traverses the vacuum chamber with thermal energy and coats the substrate.
Thermal evaporation deposits both metals and non-metals, including aluminum (Al), gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Lithium fluoride (LiF) and Molybdenum oxides (MoO3). Thermal evaporation is used most commonly for applications involving electrical contacts, by depositing such single metals as silver or aluminum. More complex applications include the co-deposition of several components and can be achieved by carefully controlling the temperature of individual crucibles. Thermal evaporation can be applied to deposit metallic contact layers for thin film devices such as OLEDs, solar cells and thin-film transistors. To better achieve consistent, high-quality results, Denton Vacuum controls the rate of deposition using quartz crystal rate sensor, temperature or optical monitoring systems (OMS).

Physical Property Measurement System


The Quantum Design DynaCool is an instrument designed to measure a variety of a sample’s physical properties while controlling the conditions experienced by the sample employing a minimum amount of condensed liquid Helium-4 for cooling both the sample chamber and superconducting magnet. It is equipped with a 9T conduction cooled superconducting switch-less magnet system.
It offers to perform the DC magnetization measurements (VSM option) as function of temperature/magnetic field in the range of 1.8-1000 K with sensitivity ⁓ 10-6 emu, AC magnetic susceptibility determination for frequencies between 10-10000 Hz and specific heat measurement in the temperature range 1.8-390 K. These studies allow us to establish magnetic behavior of different materials and perform detailed analysis of nature of their phase transitions.

Alpha-A High Performance Frequency Analyser


The Cryogen-Free High Field Measurement System combines the cryogen-free technology with sophisticated measurement techniques providing a versatile investigative device achieving low temperatures (⁓ 1.8 K) and high magnetic fields (7 T) without the use of liquid cryogens.
It is being used for measurement of dielectric response/pyroelectric current/ resistivity of materials as a function temperature with the help of Novocontrol/ Hioki LCR meter and Keithley electrometer/nanovoltmeter. These studies allow us to characterize dielectric behavior of materials to explore their scope in electronic industry.

18 KW Rotating Anode X-Ray Diffractometer


The RINT 2000/ PC series of Rigaku is an 18 kW rotating anode based powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD) using Cu K radiation with Bragg- Brentano geometry fitted with a graphite monochromator in the diffracted beam. This can record XRD patterns at standard room temperature,
high temperatures (up to 1600 K) and low temperatures (up to 12 K). These studies enable us to perform structural analysis of crystalline materials in a wide temperature range and study their nature of structural phase transition.