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Prof. Rajendra Prasad
Department of Physics Engineering,IIT (BHU)
Area of Interest: 
Radar polarimetry and Polarimetric scattering inversion algorithm using various satellite data. Hybrid machine learning algorithms with improved parametrization schemes for biophysical parameters and soil moisture retrieval using radiative transfer models, scatterometer and SAR polarimetry.


Educational qualifications

     Higher Secondary (1985), Intermediate (1987), BSc (1990), MSc (1992):   All First Class.
   Ph.D (1998): Some Crop Signature Studies by Microwave Remote Sensing.


Positions Held

  Professor in Physics, IIT(BHU), Varanasi (September 2015 onwards).
  Associate Professor in Physics, IIT(BHU), Varanasi (June 2011–September 2015).
  Reader in Applied Physics, I.T. BHU, Varanasi (June 2008-June 2011).
  Senior Lecturer in Applied Physics, I.T. BHU, Varanasi (Oct. 2005-June 2008).
  Lecturer in Applied Physics, I.T. BHU, Varanasi (Oct. 2004-Oct., 2005).
  Senior Lecturer in Physics, I.E.T., Lucknow (June 2003-Oct, 2004).
  Lecturer in Physics, I.E.T., Lucknow (June 1999-June, 2003).


                                                                   Satellite-Based Research Work



Our primary research aims at the development of methodologies in relation to higher-order scattering models and applications with Remote sensing Earth observation sensors (EOS) with a specific focus on optical satellite and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) polarimetry and interferometry technologies.
We are simulating our developed scattering models with the help of advanced programming language (Python, Matlab, R) and simulation packages provided by NASA and ESA. 
The major research focuses on using (1) Radar polarimetry theory (2) Polarimetric scattering theory (3) Multi-frequency SAR remote sensing (4) Multi-temporal time series analysis and (5) Polarimetric scattering inversion algorithms. The various applications of the above remotely sensed images and wave theory employed for agricultural crop monitoring, SAR polarimetry for crop inventory mapping, bio-geo physical parameter retrieval over multi-test site experiments, Land surface temperature, and robust methods can be used for global analysis using EO data. Other major research areas are shown below:

  • Development of higher-order scattering matrices, coherency, covariance matrices of H and V polarized electromagnetic wave.
  • Coherent and Incoherent decompositions of scattering matrics on a different basis vector. eg. Pauli Decomposition, Freeman Decomposition, Yamaguchi Decomposition
  • Soil moisture retrieval algorithms and spatial disaggregation using radar and radiometer data.
  • Land use/land cover, landscape dynamics, and land surface temperature based on machine learning techniques using multi-sensor onboard satellite dataset.
  • Development/Modification of algorithms for estimating more accurate SM and vegetation products using radar and radiometer observations and vegetation growth variables over selected forest regions.
  • Validation and performance evaluation of the algorithms on different forest sites of India.
  • Study of urban heat island (UHI)  and land surface temperature (LST) variation over urban landscapes.

 Bistatic Scatterometer Measurement Techniques

  • Optimization of an indigenously developed ground-based bistatic specular (bi-spec) scatterometer in terms of frequency, polarization and incidence angle for monitoring crop growth variable and bare soil properties.
  • To develop the physical and semi-empirical model with the help of parametrization of scattering distribution function which helps us to understand the insight of microwave scattering through vegetation and soil surface.
  • Scattering models are developed using various computational techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN), least square regression, etc.
  • A semi-empirical approach to find extinction coefficient and phase function to reduce the complexity of the model.
  • Validation and testing of developed radiative transfer model using ground-based scattering measurement.
  • Inversion of biophysical parameters of vegetation and soil moisture with the help of a developed model.
  • To develop a set of data as a reference for future advancement in bistatic radar systems and field studies.

                                       Courses                                                               Labs

1.Electromagnetism and Optics
2. Classical and Quantum mechanism
3. Thermal Physics
4. Elements of Microwave Remote Sensing
5. Microwave Remote Sensing
6. Principle of Remote Sensing
7. Preparatory course: Electricity & Magnetism
8. Principle of Remote Sensing (Ph.D Course Work)
 9. Microwave Remote Sensing (Ph.D Course Work)
1. Physics Lab: Undergraduate Mechanics Lab
2. Physics Lab: Undergraduate Optics Lab
3. Physics Lab: General Electronics Lab
4. Physics Lab: Microwave Remote Sensing and image processing Lab

                                                                  Remote Sensing Group

                                                            Research Scholar
 Dr. Vijay Pratap Yadav (M.Sc. Physics: IIT Delhi, B.Sc (Hons.): Institute of Science, BHU, NGPE(State Topper), GATE, CSIR-JRF, JEST Qualified)
 Enrolment Year: July 2015, PhD awarded (2020)
 Roll No:   15171010
 Email-Idvijaypy.rs.phy15@itbhu.ac.in, victory327759@gmail.com
 Mobile No.- 9554666408
 Research Area: Microwave Remote Sensing (SAR Polarimetry, PolSAR Interferometry, Differential PolInSAR)
 Thesis TitleModelling and monitoring of backscattering for biophysical parameter and soil moisture retrieval using multi-sensor satellite data
 Link2:   https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Vijay_Yadav32
 Dr. Ruchi Bala (M.Sc. Physics: IIT Delhi, B.Sc (Hons.): St. Xavier College, Ranchi, GATE, CSIR-JRF, JEST Qualified)
 Enrolment Year: July 2015, PhD awarded (2020) 
 Roll No:   15171008
 Email-Idruchib.rs.phy15@itbhu.ac.in, ruchibala7@gmail.com
 Mobile No.- 9721907263
 Research Area: Thermal Remote Sensing (Urban Heat Island, Land Surface Temperature)
 Thesis Title: Assessment of land-surface temperature dynamics over urban landscapes using satellite imagery
Link:  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ruchi_Bala
 Ms. Jyoti Sharma (M.Sc. Physics: Bareilly CollegeB.ScGandhi Faiz-E-Aam Degree College, Shahjahanpur, GATE, UGC-JRF Qualified)
 Enrolment Year: July 2017 
 Roll No:   17171016
 Mobile No.-  7054219577
 Research Area: Microwave Remote Sensing (Soil Parametrization and Biophysical Parameters Retrieval)

 Mr. Suraj A. Yadav (M.Sc. PhysicsB.Sc : Bhavans College, Mumbai, GATE, UGC-JRF Qualified)
 Enrolment Year: July 2017 
 Roll No:   17171010
 Mobile No.- 7021000690
 Research Area: Bistatic Scatterometer Measurement for vegetation Monitoring

 Ms. Bhagyashree Verma (M.Sc. Physics: IIT Delhi B.Sc : S.M.M. Town College, Ballia, GATE Qualified)
 Enrolment Year: December 2017 
 Roll No:   17171502
 Mobile No.- 9919587896
 Research Area: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing (Biophysical/Biochemical parameters retrieval)

 Mr. Shubham Kumar Singh (Integrated MS: IISER Bhopal, DST-Inspire Fellow, GATE Qualified)
 Enrolment Year: July 2018
 Roll No:   18171011
 Mobile No.- 9981237353
 Research Area: Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing

                                                                                        M.Tech Students
1. Mr. Anurag Singh
2.  Mr. Mangukiya Romit Kumar Nareshbhai
3. Mr. Hardeep Singh Sohee
4. Mr. Achint Gupta
5. Mr. Aditya Kumar Choudhary
6. Mr. Manoj Kumar Dayyala
7. Mr. Anshuman Johari
8. Mr. Rakesh Verma
9 Mr. J.S.H. Aditya Kiran 
10.Mr. Sala Siva Chaitanya
11. Acharya Piyush Rajiv
12. Mr. Narendra Pawan Kumar
13. Mr. Sakar Satya
14. Vivek Kumar
15. Mr. Mani Shankar Meena

MSc Students
1. Mr. Sachin Verma
2. Mr. Deepak Kumar
3. Mr. Prateek Nautiyal
Former Ph.D. Scholars
1. Dr. Abhishek Pandey
2. Dr. Dileep Kumar Gupta (Research Associate in an ISRO project)
3. Dr. Pradeep Kumar (National PDF)
4. Dr. Varun Narayan Mishra (Assistant Professor)
5. Dr. Ajeet Kumar Vishwakarma (DRDO Project)



Instruments  Satellite Data Processing Tools
  • Developed C-, L- and X- Bands Monostatic and Bistatic radar scatterometer Systems for studying microwave scattering mechanism with different targets under fully polarimetric modes (HH, VV, VH and HV modes)
  • Microwave Analog Signal Generator PSG
  • Microwave power sensor 
  • Chlorophyll content meter
  • Leaf area index meter
  • Surface roughness profiler
  • Satellite image processing software (ENVI-SARscape for visible, infrared and microwave satellite images) for classification of crops and the estimation of their biophysical parameters.
  • High configured computer
  • Weighing balance
  • Oven
  • Online UPS, etc.
  • Hyperspectral Radiometer (In collaboration with BHU)
  • MATLAB, Python (Powerful general purpose programming languages)
  • Origin (computer program for interactive scientific graphing and data analysis)
  • ERDAS Imagine (leading geospatial data authoring system)
  • ENVI (ENVI handles hyperspectral, LiDAR, and other remotely sensed data)
  • SNAP (SNAP architecture is ideal for Earth Observation processing and analysis)
  • SARscape (a modular set of functions for the processing of all spaceborne and selected airborne SAR data.)
  •  ArcGIS (a geographic information system for working with maps and geographic information)
  • QGIS (cross-platform desktop geographic information system application that supports viewing, editing, and analysis of geospatial data)
  • PolSARpro (The Polarimetric SAR Data Processing and Educational Tool devoloped by European Space Agency)

Recent Publication


  1. Jyoti Sharma, Rajendra Prasad, Prashant K. Srivastava, Shubham Kumar Singh, Suraj Amarbahadur Yadav, Vijay Pratap Yadav (2021), Roughness characterization and disaggregation of coarse resolution SMAP soil moisture using single-channel algorithm, International Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 15(1), 1-14. 
  2. Vijay Pratap Yadav, Rajendra Prasad, Ruchi Bala & Prashant K. Srivastava (2021). ‘Assessment of red-edge vegetation descriptors in a modified water cloud model for forward modelling using Sentinel – 1A and Sentinel – 2 satellite data.’ International Journal of Remote Sensing, 42:3, 794-804.
  3. Bala, Ruchi, Rajendra Prasad, and Vijay Pratap Yadav (2021), Quantification of urban heat intensity with land use/land cover changes using Landsat satellite data over urban landscapes” Theoretical and Applied Climatology. Vol. 145, 1-12.
  4. Dileep Kumar Gupta, Prashant K. Srivastava, Ankita Singh, George P. Petropoulos, Nikolaos Stathopoulos and Rajendra Prasad (2021), SMAP Soil Moisture Product Assessment over Wales, U.K., Using Observations from the WSMN Ground Monitoring Network, International Journal of Sustainability, 13, 1-18.
  5. VP Yadav, R Prasad, R Bala, PK Srivastava, VSK Vanama, (2021), Appraisal of Dual Polarimetric Radar Vegetation Index in First Order Microwave Scattering Algorithm using Sentinel – 1A (C - band) and ALOS - 2 (L - band) SAR Data, Geocarto International, DOI: 10.1080/10106049.2021.1933209, 1-18.
  6. Prashant K. Srivastava, Manika Gupta, Ujjwal Singh, Rajendra Prasad, Prem Chandra Pandey, A. S. Raghubanshi, George P. Petropoulos (2021), Sensitivity analysis of artificial neural network for chlorophyll prediction using hyperspectral data, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 5504-5519.
  7. Vijay Pratap Yadav, R. Prasad, R. Bala, Prashant K. Srivastava (2020), Synergy of Vegetation and Soil Microwave Scattering Model for Leaf Area Index Retrieval Using C-Band Sentinel-1A Satellite Data,  IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 36, 791- 802.
  8. Mishra V.N, Vivek Kumar, Rajendra Prasad, Milap Punia (2020), Geographically Weighted Method Integrated with Logistic Regression for Analyzing Spatially Varying Accuracy Measures of Remote Sensing Image Classification, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 49, 1189-1199
  9. Kumar Pradeep, Pratap Vineet, Kumar Akhilesh, Choudhary Arti,  Prasad Rajendra, Shukla Anuradha, Singh R.P., Singh Abhay Kumar,  Assessment of atmospheric aerosols over Varanasi: Physical, optical and chemical properties and meteorological implications. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. (2020) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2020.105424.
  10. Suraj A. Yadav, Rajendra Prasad, A.K. Vishwakarma, Jyoti Sharma, Bhagyashree Verma, Prashant K. Srivastava, Optimization of dual-polarized bistatic specular scatterometer for studying microwave scattering response and vegetation growth parameters retrieval of paddy crop using a machine learning algorithm, ." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture ,Volume 175,2020,105592.
  11. Yadav, Vijay Pratap, Rajendra Prasad, Ruchi Bala, and A. K. Vishwakarma. "An improved inversion algorithm for spatio-temporal retrieval of soil moisture through modified water cloud model using C-band Sentinel-1A SAR data." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 173 (2020): 105447.
  12. Ruchi Bala, Rajendra Prasad, Vijay Pratap Yadav. “A comparative analysis of day and night land surface temperature in two semi-arid cities using satellite images sampled in different seasons.” Advances in Space Research (2020), Vol. 66 (2), 412-425.
  13. Bala, R., Prasad, R. & Yadav, V.P. “Thermal sharpening of MODIS land surface temperature using statistical downscaling technique in urban areas.” Theoretical & Applied Climatology (2020). vol .141, pp 935 -946.
  14. Singh, U., Prashant K. Srivastava, Pandey, D.K., Chaurasia, S., Gupta, D.K., Chaudhary, S.K., Prasad, R. and Raghubanshi, A.S., 2019. ScatSat-1 Leaf Area Index Product: Models Comparison, Development, and Validation Over Cropland. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 17(4), pp.563-567.

  15. Vijay Pratap Yadav, Rajendra Prasad, Ruchi Bala (2019). “Leaf area index estimation of wheat crop using modified water cloud model from the time-series SAR and optical satellite data.” Geocarto International, DOI: 10.1080/10106049.2019.1624984.

  16. Bala, R., Prasad, R., & Yadav, V. P. (2019). Disaggregation of MODIS land surface temperature in urban areas using improved thermal sharpening techniques. Advances in Space Research. Vol. 64, pp. 591-602

  17. Vishwakarma, A. K., and Prasad, R. (2019). Bistatic specular scattering measurements for the estimation of rice crop growth variables using fuzzy inference system at X-, C-, and L-bands. Geocarto International, 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/10106049.2019.1576777.

  18. Mishra, V. N., Prasad, R., Rai, P. K., Vishwakarma, A. K., & Arora, A. (2019). Performance evaluation of textural features in improving land use/land cover classification accuracy of heterogeneous landscape using multi-sensor remote sensing data. Earth Science Informatics, 12 (1), 71-86.

  19. Yadav, V. P., Prasad, R., Bala, R., Vishwakarma, A. K., & Yadav, S. A. (2018). Estimation of biophysical parameters of wheat crop through modified water cloud model using satellite data. ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 4 Issue 5, p239-244.

  20. Bala, R., Prasad, R., Yadav, V. P., & Sharma, J. (2018). a Comparative Study of Land Surface Temperature with Different Indices on Heterogeneous Land Cover Using Landsat 8 Data. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XLII-5, pp.389-394.

  21. Yadav, S. A., Prasad, R., Vishwakarma, A. K., & Yadav, V. P. (2018). Random forest regression for the estimation of leaf area index of okra crop using ground based bistatic scatterometer. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences. Vol. XLII-5, pp. 719-725.

  22. Sharma, J., Prasad, R., Mishra, V. N., Yadav, V. P., & Bala, R. (2018). Land Use and Land Cover Classification of Multispectral LANDSAT-8 Satellite Imagery Using Discrete Wavelet Transform. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XLII-5, pp. 703-706.

  23. V.N. Mishra, P.K. Rai, R. Prasad, M. Punia, M.M. Nistor (2018). Prediction of spatiotemporal land use/land cover dynamics in rapidly developing Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India using Geospatial approach: A comparison of hybrid models. Applied Geomatics. Vol. 10, pp. 257-276.

  24. A. K. Vishwakarma, R. Prasad, D.K. Gupta, P. Kumar, V.N. Mishra (2018). Ground based bistatic scatterometer measurement for the estimation of growth variables of ladyfinger crop at X-band. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing. Vol. 46, pp. 973-980.

  25. Gupta DK, Prasad R, Kumar P, Srivastava PK, Islam T (2018) Robust machine learning techniques for rice crop variables estimation using multiangular bistatic scattering coefficients. J Appl Remote Sens 12(03):1.

  26. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, A. Choudhary, D.K. Gupta, V.N. Mishra, A.K. Vishwakarma, A. K. Singh, P. K. Srivastava (2018). Comprehensive evaluation of soil moisture retrieval models under different crop cover types using C-band synthetic aperture radar data. Geocarto International. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2018.1464601.

  27. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, D.K. Gupta, V.N. Mishra, A.K. Vishwakarma, V.P. Yadav, R. Bala, A. Choudhary, R. Avtar (2017), Estimation of winter wheat crop growth parameters using time series Sentinel-1A SAR data, Geocarto International, pp. 1-15.

  28. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, A. Choudhary, V.N. Mishra, D.K. Gupta, P.K. Srivastava, (2017), A statistical significance of differences in classification accuracy of crop types using different classification algorithms, Geocarto International, 32 (206-224).

  29. D.K. Gupta, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, A.K. Vishwakarma, P.K. Srivastava (2017), Vegetation water content retrieval using scatterometer data at X-band, Geocarto International, pp. 1-10.

  30. V.N. Mishra, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, D.K. Gupta, S. Agrawal, A. Gangwal, (2017), Assessment of spatio-temporal changes in land use/land cover over a decade (2000-2014) using earth observation datasets: a case study of Varanasi district, India, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering (In Press).

  31. D.K. Gupta, R. Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, A.K. Vishwakarma (2017), Soil moisture retrieval using ground based bistatic scatterometer data at X-band, Advances in Space Research, 59 (996-1007).

  32. V.N. Mishra, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, D.K. Gupta, P.K. Srivastava (2017), Dual-polarimetric C-band SAR data for land use/land cover classification by incorporating textural information, Environmental Earth Sciences, 76 (1-16).

  33. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, D.K. Gupta, A.K. Vishwakarma, & A. Choudhary, Retrieval of rice crop growth variables using multi-temporal RISAT-1 remotely sensed data. International Journal of Russian Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 43, pp. 461-465.

  34. V.N. Mishra, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, P.K. Srivastava, P.K. Rai (2017), Knowledge-based decision tree approach for mapping spatial distribution of rice crop using C-band SAR derived information, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing11 (4), 046003.

  35. Srivastava, P.K.; Han, D.; Yaduvanshi, A.; Petropoulos, G.P.; Singh, S.K.; Mall, R.K.; Prasad, R. Reference Evapotranspiration Retrievals from a Mesoscale Model Based Weather Variables for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1971.

  36. V.N. Mishra, P.K. Rai, P. Kumar, R. Prasad (2016), Evaluation of land use/land cover classification accuracy using multi-resolution remote sensing images, Forum Geographic, 15 (45-53).

  37. D.K. Gupta, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, V.N. Mishra (2016). Estimation of crop variables using bistatic scatterometer data and artificial neural network trained by empirical models.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 123: 64-73.

  38. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, V.N. Mishra, D.K. Gupta & S.K. Singh (2016). Artificial neural network for crop classification using C-band RISAT-1 satellite datasets. International Journal of Russian Agricultural Sciences. 42: 281-284.

  39. P. Kumar, D. K. Gupta, V. N. Mishra and R. Prasad (2015), Comparison of support vector machine, artificial neural network, and spectral angle mapper algorithms for crop classification using LISS IV data, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36(6): 1604-1617.

  40. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, D.K. Gupta, V.N. Mishra, and A. Choudhary, (2015). Support vector machine for classification of various crops using high resolution LISS-IV Imagery Bulletin of Environmental and Scientific Research. Vol. 4, Issue (3), pp.1-5.

  41. D.K. Gupta, P. Kumar, V.N. Mishra, R. Prasad, P.K.S. Dikshit, S.B. Dwivedi, A. Ohri, R.S. Singh, V. Srivastava, (2015) Bistatic measurements for the estimation of rice crop variables using artificial neural network, Advances in Space research, 55 (6): 1613-1623.

  42. Pandey, A., Prasad, R., Singh, V. P., Jha, S.K., and Shukla, K.K., (2013) Crop Parameters Estimation by Fuzzy Inference System Using X-band Scatterometer Data, Advances in Space Research, 51: 905–911.

  43. Prasad, R., Pandey, A., Singh, K.P., Singh, V.P., Mishra, R.K., Singh, D., (2012), Retrieval of Spinach Crop Parameters By Microwave Remote Sensing With Back Propagation Artificial Neural Networks: A Comparison of Different Transfer Functions, Advances in Space Research, 50: 363–370.

  44. Pandey A., Khem B. Thapa, R. Prasad and K.P. Singh, (2012) General Regression Neural Network and Radial Basis Neural Network for the Estimation of Crop Variables of Lady Finger, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, DOI 10.1007/s12524-011-0197-9.

  45. Pandey, A., Prasad, R., Srivastava, J.K., Singh,V.P., (2012) Retrieval of Soil Moisture by Artificial Neural Network Using X-band Ground Based Data, International Journal of Russian Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 230–233.

  46. Prasad, R., (2011), Estimation of crop variables of kidney-bean using ground based scatterometer data at 9.89 GHz, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, Issue 1, pp. 31–48.

  47. Pandey, A., Prasad, R.andJha, S.K., (2010), Classification of two Different Rough Soil Surface by Using Microwave X-band Data Through Support Vector Machine (SVM), International Journal ofRussian Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 36, N0. 2, pp. 141-145.

  48. Pandey, A., Jha, S.K. and Prasad, R., (2010), Retrieval of Crop Parameters of Spinach by Radial Basis Neural Network Approach Using X-band Scatterometer Data, International Journal of Russian Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 312–315.

  49. Pandey, A., Jha, S. K., Srivastava, J. K. and Prasad, R., (2010), Artificial Neural Network for the Estimation of Soil Moisture and Surface Roughness, International Journal of Russian Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 428–432.

  50. Prasad, R., Pandey, A., Jha, S. K., Singh, K.P. and Yadav, G.S., (2010), Classification of Fields having Different Soil Moisture Content By SVM Technique using Bistatic Scatterometer, International Journal of Recent Research in Science and Technology, 3(1): 105-113.

  51. Prasad, R.,(2009), Retrieval of Crop Variables with Field-based X-band Microwave Remote Sensing of Ladyfinger, International Journal of Advances in Space Research, Vol. 43, pp. 1356–1363.

  52. Prasad, R., Kumar, R. and Singh, D., (2009), A Radial Basis Function Approach to Retrieve Soil Moisture and Crop Variables from X-band Scatterometer Observations, International Journal of Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 12, pp. 201–217.

  53. Singh, D., Choudhary, N. K., Tiwari, K. C. and R. Prasad, (2009), Shape of Shallow Buried Metallic Objects at X-band using ANN Image Analysis Techniques Recognition, International Journal of Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 13, pp. 257–273.

  54. Prasad, R., Singh, D. and Singh, K.P., (2009), Microwave Response of Vegetation Lady's finger by Bistatic Scatterometer, Asian J Phys, Vol. 17, ISBN No.: 0971-3093, No 2, pp.303-306.

  55. V.N Mishra, R. Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, D.K. Gupta, A.K. Vishwakarma, Analysis of land use and land cover changes using multitemporal Landsat images, National conference on Managing soil resource for environmental sustainability: challenges and perspectives held during 9-10th December 2016 at Institute of environment and sustainable development. 

  56. Pradeep Kumar, R. Prasad, D.K. Gupta V.N. Mishra, A.K. Vishwakarma, Potential of Sentinel-1A SAR data for the estimation of winter wheat crop biophysical parameters, National Symposium on “Recent Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS with Special Emphasis on Mountain Ecosystems” & Annual Conventions of Indian Society of Remote Sensing & Indian Society of Geomatics held during December 7 - 9, 2016 at Dehradun,India.

  57. V.N. Mishra, R. Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, D.K. Gupta, P.K. Rai, A remote sensing based study for analyzing land use/land cover changes in Varanasi district, India, Published in the proceedings of National Conference on advancements in applications of remote sensing and geospatial technology (AARSGT-2016) organized by the Department of remote sensing, Birla Institute of Technology Meshra, Ranchi, during May 19-21 (2016).

  58. Pradeep Kumar, R. Prasad, A. Choudhary, D.K. Gupta, V.N. Mishra, P.K. Srivastava, Backscattering and vegetation water content response of paddy crop at C-band using RISAT-1 satellite data, Abstract published in European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016 scheduled during 17-22 April 2016 in Vienna, Austria.

  59. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, V.N. Mishra, D.K. Gupta, A. Choudhary, P.K. Srivastava (2015). Artificial neural network with different learning parameters for crop classification using multispectral datasets. International conference on microwave, optical and communication engineering (ICMOCE-2015) organized by IIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha India during December18-20. Accepted for publication in IEEE Xplore digital library.

  60. V.N. Mishra, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, D.K. Gupta, P.K.S. Dikshit, S.B. Dwivedi, A. Ohri, (2015). Evaluating the effects of spatial resolution on land use and land cover classification accuracy. International conference on microwave, optical and communication engineering (ICMOCE-2015) organized by IIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha India during December18-20. Accepted for publication in IEEE Xplore digital library.

  61. D.K. Gupta, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, V.N. Mishra, A.K. Vishwakarma, R.S. Singh, V. Srivastava (2015). Spatial modeling of SPAD values for different type of crops using LISS-IV satellite imagery. International conference on microwave, optical and  communication engineering (ICMOCE-2015) organized by IIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India during December18-20. Accepted for publication in IEEE Explore digital library.

  62. D.K. Gupta, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, V.N. Mishra, P.K.S. Dikshit, S.B. Dwivedi, A. Ohri, R.S. Singh, V. Srivastava, P.K. Srivastava (2015). Crop variables estimation by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system using bistatic scatterometer data. II International conference on microwave and photonics (ICMAP-2015) organized by ISM Dhanbad, India during December11-13. Accepted for publication in IEEE Xplore digital library.

  63. V.N. Mishra, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, D.K. Gupta, P.K.S. Dikshit, S.B. Dwivedi, R.S. Singh, V. Srivastava (2015). Supervised algorithms for classification of remotely sensed satellite image using open source support. Published in Proceedings of National Conference on Open Source GIS: Opportunities and Challenges, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT (BHU), Varanasi October 9-10. ISBN: 978-81-931-2500-7.

  64. D.K. Gupta, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, V.N. Mishra, A.K. Vishwakarma, P.K. Srivastava (2015). Support vector regression for retrieval of soil moisture using bistatic scatterometer data at x-band. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, 9(10).

  65. P. Kumar, R. Prasad, A. Choudhary, D.K. Gupta, V.N. Mishra, P.K. Srivastava (2016). “Backscattering and vegetation water content response of paddy crop at C-band using RISAT-1 satellite data”. Accepted in European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016 scheduled to be held during April17-22 in Vienna, Austria.

  66. Gupta, D. K., Kumar, P., Mishra, V. N., R. Prasad, (2014), Soil moisture Estimation by ANN using Bistatic Scatterometer Data, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume II-8, Symposium, 09–12 December 2014, Hyderabad, India.

  67. Mishra, V. N. Kumar, P., Gupta, D. K., R. Prasad, (2014), Classification of Various Land Features using RISAT-1 Dual Polarimetric Data, The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume II-8, Symposium, 09–12, December 2014, Hyderabad, India.

  68. Pandey, A., Prasad, R. and Rajput, N. S., (2009), Study of Vegetable Okra by Microwave Remote Sensing at X- Band, IEEE Explorer available online, ISBN No.: 978-1-4244-4846-3, pp. 212-215.

  • A mini project on the topic “Crop signature study and soil moisture estimation through remote sensing.
  • A major project on the topic “Crop signature study by microwave remote sensing with soft computing techniques”. Sanctioned by IIT(BHU), SGF Grant, 2014.
  • Minor Project on the topic “Land use land cover change detection and urban sprawl mapping of Varanasi district using satellite images by remote sensing techniques”. Sanctioned by IIT(BHU), Extended Summer Project, 2015.
  • Major project submitted in 2019 to DST-SERB: "Development of Algorithms for Retrieval of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Growth Variables using Multiple Orbiting Multi-Sensor Satellites".
We are doing collaborative work with Space Application Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad on
1.Synthesis of algorithm from multiple orbiting satellites toward operational high resolution soil moisture estimation- HighRes-SM. Sanctioned by SAC, ISRO, Ahmedabad , (Under Respond Programme) (Amount Sanctioned – Rs.27.11 lakhs), 2017.
2. Retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation parameters from LS band system. Sanctioned by NASA-ISRO SAR Mission, SAC, ISRO, Ahmedabad (Amount Sanctioned – Rs. 27.26 lakhs), 2017
  • Development of various algorithms for multiple satellites working in a different frequency range and different polarimetric modes for the estimation of the soil moisture and vegetation product.
  • The estimation of SM is a broad area of research interest because of the launching of the new satellites (SMOS and SMAP) and the upcoming NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) mission. 
  • Hyperspectral radiometry and multi-spectral cameras onboard Unmanned Airborne Vehicle are about to start very soon for mapping and monitoring of forest and agricultural resources in collaboration with BHU. To develop and test the models over forest ranges of Himalaya in collaboration with partners in India for effective soil moisture retrieval and vegetation products. 
  • The chosen sites are rich in biodiversity and have many rare and economically important plant species.